1. Paul, an apostle, a servant of God (called of Jesus Christ) and separated to preach the gospel which he had promised before by his prophets in the holy scriptures concerning his Son Jesus Christ, our Lord, who was made of the seed of David according to the flesh and declared the Son of God with power by the spirit — according to the truth, through the resurrection from the dead — by whom we have received grace and apostleship, through obedience and faith on his name, to preach the gospel among all nations, among whom you also are called of Jesus Christ. Wherefore, I write to all who are in Rome, beloved of God, called saints: Grace to you, and peace, from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ.
  2. First, I thank my God through Jesus Christ that you all are steadfast, and your faith is spoken of throughout the whole world. For God is my witness, whom I serve, that without ceasing I make mention of you always in my prayers, that you may be kept through the spirit in the gospel of his Son. Making request of you to remember me in your prayers, I now write unto you that you will ask him in faith, that if by any means at length I may serve you with my labors and may have a prosperous journey by the will of God to come unto you. For I long to see you, that I may impart unto you some spiritual gift, that it may be established in you to the end, that I may be comforted together with you by the mutual faith both of you and me.
  3. Now I would not have you ignorant, brethren, that oftentimes I purposed to come unto you — but was hindered hitherto — that I might have some fruit among you also, even as among other gentiles. I am debtor both to the Greeks and to the foreigners, both to the wise and to the unwise. And as much as in me is, I am ready to preach the gospel to you that are at Rome also. For I am not ashamed of the gospel of Christ, for it is the power of God unto salvation to everyone that believes — to the Jew first, and also to the Greek; for therein is the righteousness of God revealed through faith on his name, as it is written: The just shall live by faith.
  4. For the wrath of God is revealed from Heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men who love not the truth, but remain in unrighteousness after that which may be known of God is manifest to them. For God has revealed unto them the invisible things of him, from the creation of the world, which are clearly seen — things which are not seen being understood by the things that are made through his eternal power and Godhead — so that they are without excuse; because when they knew God, they glorified him not as God, neither were they thankful, but became vain in their imaginations, and their foolish hearts were darkened. Professing themselves to be wise, they became fools and changed the glory of the incorruptible God into an image made like to corruptible man, and to birds, and four-footed beasts, and creeping things. Wherefore, God also gave them up to uncleanness through the lusts of their own hearts, to dishonor their own bodies between themselves, who changed the truth of God into a lie and worshipped and served the creature more than the Creator, who is blessed for ever. Amen.
  5. For this cause, God gave them up unto vile affections; for even their women did change the natural use into that which is against nature; and likewise also the men, leaving the natural use of the woman, burned in their lust one toward another — men with men working that which is unseemly, and receiving in themselves that recompense of their error which was meet.
  6. And even as they did not like to retain God according to some knowledge, God gave them over to a reprobate mind, to do those things which are not proper — being filled with all unrighteousness, fornication, wickedness, covetousness, maliciousness; full of envy, murder, debate, deceit, malignity; whisperers, backbiters, haters of God, insolent, proud, boasters, inventors of evil things, disobedient to parents, without understanding, covenant breakers, without natural affection, implacable, unmerciful. And some who — knowing the judgment of God, that they who commit such things are worthy of death — are inexcusable not only do the same, but have pleasure in them that do them.
  7. Therefore, you are inexcusable, O man, whoever you are, that thus judges; for wherein you judge another, you condemn yourself — for you who judges does the same things. But we are sure that the judgment of God is according to truth against them who commit such things. And do you think this, O man who judges them who do such things and does the same: that you shall escape the judgment of God?
  8. Or do you despise the riches of his goodness, and tolerance, and long-suffering, not knowing that the goodness of God leads you to repentance? But after your hardness and impenitent heart, treasure up unto yourself wrath against the day of wrath and revelation of the righteous judgment of God, who will render to every man according to his deeds. To them who by patient continuance in well-doing seek for glory, and honor, and immortality: eternal life; but unto them that are contentious and do not obey the truth but obey unrighteousness: indignation and wrath, tribulation and anguish, upon every soul of man that does evil — of the Jew first, and also of the gentile. But glory, honor, and peace to every man that works good — to the Jew first, and also to the gentile; for there is no respect of persons with God.
  9. For as many as have sinned without law shall also perish without law. And as many as have sinned in the law shall be judged by the law, for the hearers of the law are not just before God, but the doers of the law shall be justified — for when the gentiles, who have not the law, do by nature the things contained in the law, these, having not the law, are a law unto themselves, who show the work of the law written in their hearts, their conscience also bearing witness, and their thoughts the meanwhile accusing or else excusing one another, in the day when God shall judge the secrets of men by Jesus Christ, according to the gospel.
  10. Behold, you are called a Jew, and rest in the law, and make your boast of God, and know his will, and approve the things that are more excellent, being instructed out of the law, and are confident that you yourself are a guide of the blind, a light of them who are in darkness, an instructor of the foolish, a teacher of babes, who has the form of knowledge and of the truth in the law. You therefore who teach another, do you not teach yourself? You that preach a man should not steal, do you steal? You that say a man should not commit adultery, do you commit adultery? You that abhor idols, do you commit sacrilege? You that make your boast of the law, through breaking the law do you dishonor God? For the name of God is blasphemed among the gentiles through you, as it is written.
  11. For circumcision truly profits if you keep the law, but if you are a breaker of the law, your circumcision is made uncircumcision. Therefore, if the uncircumcision keep the righteousness of the law, shall not his uncircumcision be counted for circumcision? And shall not uncircumcision, which is by nature, if it fulfill the law, judge you who by the letter and circumcision does transgress the law? For he is not a Jew who is one outwardly; neither is that circumcision which is outward in the flesh. But he is a Jew who is one inwardly, and circumcision is that of the heart — in the spirit and not in the letter — whose praise is not of men, but of God.
  12. What advantage then has the Jew over the gentile? Or what profit of circumcision, who is not a Jew from the heart? But he who is a Jew from the heart I say has much every way, chiefly because unto them were committed the oracles of God. For what if some did not believe? Shall their unbelief make the faith of God without effect? God forbid.
  13. Yea, let God be true, but every man a liar, as it is written: that you might be justified in your sayings, and might overcome when you are judged. But if we remain in our unrighteousness and commend the righteousness of God, how dare we say, God is unrighteous who takes vengeance. (I speak as a man who fears God.) God forbid; for then how shall God judge the world? For if the truth of God has more abounded through my lie — as it is called of the Jews — unto his glory, why yet am I also judged as a sinner, and not received, because we are slanderously reported? And some affirm that we say (whose damnation is just), Let us do evil, that good may come. But this is false.
  14. If not so, what then? Are we better than they? No, by no means. For we have proved before that Jews and gentiles are all under sin, as it is written: There is none righteous, no, not one. There is none that understands, there is none that seeks after God. They have all gone out of the way, they have altogether become unprofitable; there is none that does good, no, not one. Their throat is an open sepulcher; with their tongues, they have used deceit; the poison of asps is under their lips whose mouth is full of cursing and bitterness; their feet are swift to shed blood. Destruction and misery are in their ways, and the way of peace have they not known. There is no fear of God before their eyes.
  15. Now we know that whatever things the law says, it says to them who are under the law, that every mouth may be stopped and all the world may become guilty before God; for by the law is the knowledge of sin. Therefore, by the deeds of the law shall no flesh be justified in his sight.
  16. But now the righteousness of God apart from the law is manifested (being witnessed by the law and the prophets), even the righteousness of God which is by faith of Jesus Christ, unto all, and upon all them that believe — for there is no difference; for all have sinned and come short of the glory of God, therefore being justified only by his grace, through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus, whom God has set forth to be a propitiation, through faith in his blood; to declare his righteousness for the remission of sins that are past, through the tolerance of God; to declare, I say, at this time his righteousness, that he might be just, and the justifier of him who believes in Jesus.
  17. Where is boasting then? It is excluded. By what law? Of works? Nay, but by the law of faith. Therefore, we conclude that a man is justified alone by faith, apart from the deeds of the law. Is he the God of the Jews only? Is he not also of the gentiles? Yes, of the gentiles also, seeing that God will justify the circumcision by faith and uncircumcision through faith. Do we then make void the law through faith? God forbid; yea, we establish the law.
  18. What shall we say then that Abraham our father, as pertaining to the flesh, has found? For if Abraham were justified by the law of works, he has to glory in himself, but not of God. For what says the scripture? Abraham believed God, and it was counted unto him for righteousness. Now to him who is justified by the law of works is the reward reckoned not of grace, but of debt. But to him that seeks not to be justified by the law of works, but believes on him who justifies not the ungodly, his faith is counted for righteousness, even as David also describes the blessedness of the man unto whom God imputes righteousness apart from the law of works, saying, Blessed are they whose iniquities are forgiven and whose sins are covered through faith. Blessed is the man to whom the Lord will not impute sin.
  19. Does this blessedness then come upon the circumcised only? Or upon the uncircumcised also? For we say that faith was reckoned to Abraham for righteousness. How was it then reckoned? When he was in circumcision, or in uncircumcision? Not in circumcision, but in uncircumcision. And he received the sign of circumcision, a seal of the righteousness of the faith which he had, yet being uncircumcised, that he might be the father of all them that believe, though they be not circumcised — that righteousness might be imputed unto them also — and the father of circumcision to them who are not of the circumcision only, but who also walk in the steps of that faith of our father Abraham, which he had — being yet uncircumcised. For the promise that he should be the heir of the world was not to Abraham or to his seed through the law, but through the righteousness of faith. For if they who are of the law are heirs, faith is made void and the promise made of no effect, because the law works wrath.
  20. For where no law is, there is no transgression; therefore, you are justified of faith and works through grace, to the end the promise might be sure to all the seed — not to them only who are of the law, but to them also who are of the faith of Abraham, who is the father of us all (as it is written: I have made you a father of many nations) before him whom he believed — even God, who quickens the dead, and calls those things which are not as though they were — who against hope believed in hope, that he might become the father of many nations according to that which was spoken: So shall your seed be. And being not weak in faith, he considered not his own body now dead when he was about a hundred years old, neither yet the deadness of Sarah’s womb. He hesitated not at the promise of God through unbelief, but was strong in faith, giving glory to God and being fully persuaded that what he had promised, he was able also to perform, and therefore it was imputed to him for righteousness.
  21. Now it was not written for his sake alone that it was imputed to him, but for us also, to whom it shall be imputed if we believe on him that raised up Jesus our Lord from the dead, who was delivered for our offenses and was raised again for our justification. Therefore, being justified by faith, we have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ, by whom also we have access (by faith) into this grace wherein we stand, and rejoice in hope of the glory of God.
  22. And not only this, but we glory in tribulations also, knowing that tribulation works patience, and patience, experience, and experience, hope. And hope makes not ashamed, because the love of God is shed abroad in our hearts by the holy ghost which is given unto us. For when we were yet without strength, in due time Christ died for the ungodly. For scarcely for a righteous man will one die, yet perhaps for a good man some would even dare to die. But God commends his love toward us, in that while we were yet sinners, Christ died for us. Much more then, being now justified by his blood, we shall be saved from wrath through him; for if, when we were enemies, we were reconciled to God by the death of his Son, much more (being reconciled) we shall be saved by his life. And not only so, but we also joy in God through our Lord Jesus Christ, by whom we have now received the atonement.
  23. Wherefore, as by one man sin entered into the world, and death by sin, and so death passed upon all men for all have sinned — for before the law, sin was in the world — yet sin is not imputed to those who have no law. Nevertheless, death reigned from Adam to Moses, even over them that had not sinned after the similitude of Adam’s transgression (who is the figure of him that was to come), for I say that through the offense, death reigned over all. But the offense is not as the free gift, for the gift abounds; for if, through the offense of one, many are dead, much more the grace of God and the gift by grace has abounded by one man — Jesus Christ — unto many. And not as it was by one that sinned, so is the gift — for the judgment is by one, to condemnation, but the free gift is of many offenses, unto justification; for if by one man’s offense, death reigned by one, much more shall they who receive abundance of grace and of the gift of righteousness reign in life by one — Jesus Christ.
  24. Therefore, as by the offense of one, judgment came upon all men to condemnation, even so by the righteousness of one, the free gift came upon all men unto justification of life. For as by one man’s disobedience, many were made sinners, so by the obedience of one shall many be made righteous. Moreover, the law entered that the offense might abound, but where sin abounded, grace did much more abound — that as sin has reigned unto death, even so might grace reign through righteousness unto eternal life, by Jesus Christ our Lord.
  25. What shall we say then? Shall we continue in sin that grace may abound? God forbid. How shall we, who are dead to sin, live any longer therein? Do you not know that so many of us as were baptized into Jesus Christ were baptized into his death? Therefore, we are buried with him by baptism into death, that like Christ was raised up from the dead by the glory of the Father, even so we also should walk in newness of life. For if we have been planted together in the likeness of his death, we shall be also in the likeness of his resurrection, knowing this: that our old man is crucified with him, that the body of sin might be destroyed, that henceforth we should not serve sin; for he that is dead to sin is freed from sin.
  26. Now if we are dead with Christ, we believe that we shall also live with him, knowing that Christ, being raised from the dead, dies no more; death has no more dominion over him. For in that he died, he died unto sin once; but in that he lives, he lives unto God. Likewise, reckon also yourselves to be dead indeed unto sin, but alive unto God through Jesus Christ our Lord.
  27. Let not sin therefore reign in your mortal body, that you should obey it in the lusts thereof, neither yield your members as instruments of unrighteousness unto sin. But yield yourselves unto God, as those that are alive from the dead, and your members as instruments of righteousness unto God. For in so doing, sin shall not have dominion over you, for you are not under the law, but under grace.
  28. What then? Shall we sin because we are not under the law but under grace? God forbid. Do you not know that to whom you yield yourselves servants to obey, his servants you are to whom you obey? Whether of sin unto death or of obedience unto righteousness? But God be thanked that you are not the servants of sin, for you have obeyed from the heart that form of doctrine which was delivered you. Being then made free from sin, you became the servants of righteousness. I speak after the manner of men because of the infirmity of your flesh: for as you have yielded your members in times past servants to uncleanness and to iniquity, unto iniquity, even so now yield your members servants to righteousness, unto holiness. For when you were the servants of sin, you were free from righteousness. What fruit did you have then in those things whereof you are now ashamed? For the end of those things is death. But now being made free from sin, and have become servants to God, you have your fruit unto holiness, and the end: everlasting life; for the wages of sin is death, but the gift of God is eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord.
  29. Do you not know, brethren (for I speak to them that know the law), that the law has dominion over a man only as long as he lives? For the woman who has a husband is bound by the law to her husband only as long as he lives; for if the husband is dead, she is released from the law of her husband. So then if, while her husband lives, she should be married to another man, she shall be called an adulteress; but if her husband be dead, she is free from that law so that she is no adulteress, though she should be married to another man. Wherefore, my brethren, you also are become dead to the law by the body of Christ, that you should be married to another, even to him who is raised from the dead, that we should bring forth fruit unto God. For when we were in the flesh, the passions of sins, which were not according to the law, did work in our members to bring forth fruit unto death. But now we are delivered from the law wherein we were held, being dead to the law, that we should serve in newness of spirit and not in the oldness of the letter.
  30. What shall we say then? Is the law sin? God forbid. Nay, I would not have known sin but by the law; for I would not have known lust except the law had said, You shall not covet. But sin, taking opportunity by the commandment, wrought in me all manner of desires. For apart from the law, sin was dead. For once I was alive apart from transgression of the law, but when the commandment of Christ came, sin revived and I died. And when I believed not the commandment of Christ which came, which was ordained to life, I found it condemned me unto death. For sin, taking opportunity, denied the commandment and deceived me, and by it I was slain. Nevertheless, I found the law to be holy and the commandment to be holy, and just, and good. Was then that which is good made death unto me? God forbid. But sin, that it might appear sin, by that which is good working death in me; that sin, by the commandment, might become exceedingly sinful.
  31. For we know that the commandment is spiritual; but when I was under the law, I was yet carnal, sold under sin. But now I am spiritual, for that which I am commanded to do, I do, and that which I am commanded not to allow, I allow not. For what I know is not right, I would not do, for that which is sin, I hate. If then I do not that which I would not allow, I consent unto the law, that it is good, and I am not condemned. Now then, it is no more I that do sin, but I seek to subdue that sin which dwells in me. For I know that in me — that is, in my flesh — dwells no good thing; for to desire is present with me, but to perform that which is good, I find not — only in Christ. For the good that I would have done when under the law, I find not to be good; therefore, I do it not. But the evil which I would not do under the law, I find to be good; that, I do.
  32. Now if I do that, through the assistance of Christ, I would not do under the law, I am not under the law, and it is no more that I seek to do wrong, but to subdue sin that dwells in me. I find then that under the law, that when I would do good, evil was present with me. For I delight in the law of God after the inward man, and now I see another law, even the commandment of Christ, and it is imprinted in my mind; but my members are warring against the law of my mind, and bringing me into captivity to the law of sin which is in my members. And if I subdue not the sin which is in me, but with the flesh serve the law of sin, oh wretched man that I am. Who shall deliver me from the body of this death? I thank God through Jesus Christ our Lord then that so with the mind, I myself serve the law of God.
  33. There is therefore now no condemnation to them who are in Christ Jesus, who walk not after the flesh, but after the spirit. For the law of the spirit of life in Christ Jesus has made me free from the law of sin and death. For what the law could not do, in that it was weak through the flesh, God, sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh and for sin, condemned sin in the flesh, that the righteousness of the law might be fulfilled in us who walk not after the flesh, but after the spirit. For they that are after the flesh do focus on the things of the flesh, but they that are after the spirit, the things of the spirit. For to be carnally minded is death, but to be spiritually minded is life and peace, because the carnal mind is enmity against God, for it is not subject to the law of God, neither indeed can be. So then they that are after the flesh cannot please God. But you are not after the flesh, but after the spirit, if so be that the spirit of God dwells in you. Now if any man has not the spirit of Christ, he is none of his. And if Christ is in you, though the body shall die because of sin, yet the spirit is life because of righteousness. And if the spirit of him that raised up Jesus from the dead dwell in you, he that raised up Christ from the dead shall also quicken your mortal bodies by his spirit that dwells in you.
  34. Therefore, brethren, we are debtors not to the flesh, to live after the flesh, for if you live after the flesh, you shall die unto sin. But if you through the spirit do put to death the deeds of the body, you shall live unto Christ. For as many as are led by the spirit of God, they are the sons of God. For you have not received the spirit of bondage again to fear, but you have received the spirit of adoption, whereby we cry, Abba, Father. The spirit itself bears witness with our spirit that we are the children of God. And if children, then heirs — heirs of God and joint-heirs with Christ, if so be that we suffer with him, that we may be also glorified together. For I reckon that the sufferings of this present time are not worthy to be named with the glory which shall be revealed in us. For the earnest expectation of the creation waits for the manifestation of the sons of God, for the creation was made subject to tribulation, not willingly, but by reason of him who has subjected it, in hope because the creation itself also shall be delivered from the bondage of corruption into the glorious liberty of the children of God. For we know that the whole creation groans and travails in pain together until now. And not only they, but ourselves also, who have the firstfruits of the spirit, even we ourselves groan within ourselves, waiting for the adoption, that is, the redemption of our body.
  35. For we are saved by hope, but hope that is seen is not hope; for what a man sees, why does he yet hope for? But if we hope for that we see not, then with patience we do wait for it. Likewise, the spirit also helps our infirmities, for we know not what we should pray for, as we ought. But the spirit itself makes intercession for us with striving which cannot be expressed, and he that searches the hearts knows what is the mind of the spirit because he makes intercession for the saints according to the will of God. And we know that all things work together for good to them that love God, to them who are the called according to his purpose.
  36. For him whom he did foreknow, he also did foreordain to be conformed to his own image, that he might be the firstborn among many brethren. Moreover, him whom he did foreordain, him he also called; and him whom he called, him he also sanctified; and him whom he sanctified, him he also glorified.
  37. What shall we then say to these things? If God is for us, who can prevail against us? He that spared not his own Son, but delivered him up for us all, how shall he not with him also freely give us all things? Who shall lay anything to the charge of God’s elect? It is God that justifies. Who is he that condemns? It is Christ who died — yea, rather who is risen again — who is even at the right hand of God, who also makes intercession for us. Who shall separate us from the love of Christ? Shall tribulation, or distress, or persecution, or famine, or nakedness, or peril, or sword? — as it is written: For your sake we are killed all the day long; we are accounted as sheep for the slaughter. Nay, in all these things we are more than conquerors, through him that loved us. For I am persuaded that neither death, nor life, nor angels, nor principalities, nor powers, nor things present, nor things to come, nor height, nor depth, nor any other creation shall be able to separate us from the love of God, which is in Christ Jesus our Lord.
  38. I say the truth in Christ; I lie not, my conscience also bearing me witness in the holy ghost, that I have great heaviness and continual sorrow in my heart. For once I could have wished that I were accursed from Christ for my brethren, my kinsmen according to the flesh, who are Israelites — of whom are the adoption, and the glory, and the covenants, and the giving of the law, and the service of God, and the promises; and are made children unto the fathers; and of whom, as concerning the flesh, Christ was, who is God over all, blessed for ever. Amen.
  39. Not as though the word of God has taken no effect, for they are not all Israel who are of Israel. Neither because they are all children of Abraham are they the seed, but in Isaac shall your seed be called — that is, they who are the children of the flesh are not the children of God, but the children of the promise are counted for the seed.
  40. For this is the word of promise: At this time will I come, and Sarah shall have a son. And not only Sarah, but when Rebekah also had conceived by one (our father Isaac) — for the children being not yet born, neither having done any good or evil, that the purpose of God according to election might stand not of works, but of him that calls — it was said unto her, The elder shall serve the younger. As it is written: Jacob have I loved, but Esau have I hated.
  41. What shall we say then? Is there unrighteousness with God? God forbid. For he says to Moses, I will have mercy on whom I will have mercy, and I will have compassion on whom I will have compassion. So then it is not of him that desires, nor of him that runs, but of God that shows mercy. For the scripture says unto Pharaoh, Even for this same purpose have I raised you up, that I might show my power in you, and that my name might be declared throughout all the earth. Therefore has he mercy on whom he will have mercy, and whom he will, he hardens.
  42. You will say then unto me, Why does he yet find fault? For who has resisted his will? Nay, but, O man, who are you that replies against God? Shall the thing formed say to him that formed it, Why have you made me thus? Has not the potter power over the clay — of the same lump to make one vessel unto honor and another unto dishonor? What if God, willing to show his wrath and to make his power known, endured with much long-suffering the vessels of wrath fitted to destruction — and that he might make known the riches of his glory on the vessels of mercy whom he had before prepared unto glory, even us whom he has called? Not of the Jews only, but also of the gentiles?
  43. As he says also in Hosea, I will call them my people, who were not my people, and her beloved, who was not beloved. And it shall come to pass that in the place where it was said unto them, You are not my people — there shall they be called the children of the living God.
  44. Isaiah also cries concerning Israel, Though the number of the children of Israel be as the sand of the sea, a remnant shall be saved. For he will finish the work and cut it short in righteousness, because a short work will the Lord make upon the earth. And as Isaiah said before, Except the Lord of Hosts had left us a seed, we would have been as Sodom, and been made like unto Gomorrah.
  45. What shall we say then? That the gentiles who followed not after righteousness have attained to righteousness, even the righteousness which is of faith; but Israel, who followed after the law of righteousness, has not attained to the law of righteousness. Wherefore, they stumbled at that stumbling stone not by faith, but, as it were, by the works of the law, as it is written: Behold, I lay in Zion a stumbling stone and rock of offense, and whoever believes on him shall not be ashamed.
  46. Brethren, my heart’s desire and prayer to God for Israel is that they might be saved. For I bear them record that they have a zeal of God, but not according to knowledge; for they, being ignorant of God’s righteousness, and going about to establish their own righteousness, have not submitted themselves unto the righteousness of God. For Christ is the end of the law for righteousness to everyone that believes.
  47. For Moses describes the righteousness which is of the law, that the man who does those things shall live by them. But the righteousness which is of faith speaks in this way: Say not in your heart, Who shall ascend into Heaven? — that is, to bring Christ down from above. Or who shall descend into the deep? — that is, to bring up Christ again from the dead.
  48. But what does it say? The word is near you, even in your mouth and in your heart — that is, the word of faith which we preach; that if you shall confess with your mouth the Lord Jesus, and shall believe in your heart that God has raised him from the dead, you shall be saved. For with the heart man believes unto righteousness, and with the mouth confession is made unto salvation. For the scripture says, Whoever believes on him shall not be ashamed; for there is no difference between the Jew and the Greek, for the same Lord over all is rich unto all that call upon him, for whoever shall call upon the name of the Lord shall be saved.
  49. How then shall they call on him in whom they have not believed? And how shall they believe in him of whom they have not heard? And how shall they hear without a preacher? And how shall they preach, except they are sent? — as it is written: How beautiful are the feet of them that preach the gospel of peace, and bring glad tidings of good things! So then faith comes by hearing the word of God.
  50. But I say, have they not heard? Yes truly, their sound went into all the earth, and their words unto the ends of the world. But they have not all obeyed the gospel. For Isaiah says, Lord, who has believed our report? Now I say, did not Israel know? First, Moses says, I will provoke you to jealousy by them who are no people; and by a foolish nation I will anger you. But Isaiah is very bold, and says, I was found of them that sought me not; I was made manifest unto them that asked not after me. But to Israel he says, All day long I have stretched forth my hands unto a disobedient and obstinate people.
  51. I say then, has God cast away his people? God forbid. For I also am an Israelite of the seed of Abraham, of the tribe of Benjamin. God has not cast away his people whom he foreknew. Do you not know what the scripture says of Elijah? How he makes complaint to God against Israel, saying, Lord, they have killed your prophets and dug down your altars, and I am left alone and they seek my life. But what does the answer of God unto him say? I have reserved to myself seven thousand men who have not bowed the knee to the image of Baal. Even so then, at this present time also, there is a remnant according to the election of grace.
  52. And if by grace, then is it no more of works; otherwise, grace is no more grace. But if it is of works, then it is no more grace; otherwise, work is no more work. What then? Israel has not obtained that which they seek for, but the election has obtained it, and the rest were blinded — according as it is written: God has given them the spirit of slumber, eyes that they should not see, and ears that they should not hear — unto this day. And David says, Let their table be made a snare, and a trap, and a stumbling block, and a recompense unto them; let their eyes be darkened, that they may not see, and bow down their back always.
  53. I say then, have they stumbled that they should fall? God forbid; but rather through their fall, salvation has come unto the gentiles, to provoke them to jealousy. Now if the fall of them is the riches of the world, and the diminishing of them the riches of the gentiles, how much more their fullness?
  54. For I speak to you gentiles: Inasmuch as I am the apostle of the gentiles, I magnify my office, if by any means I may provoke to emulation them who are my flesh and might save some of them. For if the casting away of them is the reconciling of the world, what shall the restoring of them be but life from the dead? For if the firstfruit is holy, the lump is also holy; and if the root is holy, so are the branches. And if some of the branches should be broken off, and you, being a wild olive tree, were grafted in among them, and with them partake of the root and fatness of the olive tree, boast not against the branches, for you bear not the root, but the root bears you. For if you boast, you will say, The branches were broken off that we might be grafted in. Well, because of unbelief they were broken off, and you stand by faith. Be not haughty, but fear, for if God spared not the natural branches, take heed lest he also spare not you. Behold therefore the goodness and severity of God: on them who fell, severity, but toward you, goodness, if you continue in his goodness; otherwise, you also shall be cut off.
  55. And they also, if they continue not still in unbelief, shall be grafted in, for God is able to graft them in again. For if you were cut out of the olive tree which is wild by nature, and were grafted contrary to nature into a good olive tree, how much more shall these, which are the natural branches, be grafted into their own olive tree?
  56. For I desire not, brethren, that you should be ignorant of this mystery, lest you should be wise in your own eyes. That blindness, in part, has happened to Israel until the fullness of the gentiles has come in. Then all Israel shall be saved, as it is written: There shall come out of Zion the Deliverer, and shall turn away ungodliness from Jacob. For this is my covenant unto them, when I shall take away their sins.
  57. As concerning the gospel, they are enemies for your sakes; but as touching the election, they are beloved for the fathers’ sakes; for the gifts and calling of God are unchanged. For as you in times past have not believed God, yet have now obtained mercy through their unbelief, even so have these also now not believed, that through your mercy they also may obtain mercy. For God has consigned them all in unbelief, that he might have mercy upon all.
  58. Oh the depth of the riches both of the wisdom and knowledge of God, how unsearchable are his judgments, and his ways past finding out! For who has known the mind of the Lord? Or who has been his counselor? Or who has first given to him and it shall be recompensed unto him again? For of him, and through him, and to him are all things, to whom be glory for ever. Amen.
  59. I implore you, therefore, brethren, by the mercies of God, that you present your bodies a living sacrifice, holy, acceptable unto God — which is your reasonable service. And be not conformed to this world, but be transformed by the renewing of your mind, that you may prove what that good, and acceptable, and perfect will of God is.
  60. For I say, through the grace given unto me, to every man that is among you, not to think of himself more highly than he ought to think, but to think soberly, according as God has dealt to every man the measure of faith. For as we have many members in one body and all members have not the same office, so we, being many, are one body in Christ, and every one members one of another, having then gifts differing according to the grace that is given to us: whether prophecy, let us prophesy according to the proportion of faith; or ministry, let us wait on our ministering; or he that teaches, on teaching; or he that exhorts, on exhortation; he that gives, let him do it with simplicity; he that rules, with diligence; he that shows mercy, with cheerfulness.
  61. Love without pretense, and abhor that which is evil; cleave to that which is good. Be kindly disposed one to another with brotherly love, in honor preferring one another, not slothful in diligence, fervent in spirit, serving the Lord, rejoicing in hope, patient in tribulation, continuing steadfast in prayer, distributing to the necessity of saints, given to hospitality. Bless them who persecute you — bless, and curse not. Rejoice with them that do rejoice and weep with them that weep. Be of the same mind one toward another. Regard not high things, but condescend to men of low estate. Be not wise in your own eyes. Recompense to no man evil for evil. Provide things good in the sight of all men. If it is possible, as much as lies in you, live peaceably with all men.
  62. Dearly beloved, avenge not yourselves, but rather give place unto wrath; for it is written: Vengeance is mine, I will repay, says the Lord. Therefore, if your enemy hungers, feed him; if he thirsts, give him drink. For in so doing, you shall heap coals of fire on his head. Be not overcome of evil, but overcome evil with good.
  63. Let every soul be subject unto the higher powers, for there is no power in the church but of God; the powers that be are ordained of God. Whoever therefore resists the power resists the ordinance of God, and they that resist shall receive to themselves punishment. For rulers are not a terror to good works, but to the evil. Do you desire then to not be afraid of the power? Do that which is good and you shall have praise of the same, for he is the minister of God to you for good. But if you do that which is evil, be afraid, for he bears not the rod in vain; for he is the minister of God, an avenger to execute wrath upon him that does evil.
  64. Wherefore, you must be subject not only for wrath, but also for conscience’s sake. For, for this cause you pay your consecrations also unto them. But first render to all their dues, according to custom — tribute to whom tribute, custom to whom custom — that your consecrations may be done in fear of him to whom fear belongs, and in honor of him to whom honor belongs.
  65. Therefore, owe no man anything but to love one another, for he that loves another has fulfilled the law for this: You shall not commit adultery, You shall not kill, You shall not steal, You shall not bear false witness, You shall not covet; and if there is any other commandment, it is briefly comprehended in this saying — namely, You shall love your neighbor as yourself (love works no ill to his neighbor; therefore, love is the fulfilling of the law), and that, knowing the time — that now it is high time to awake out of sleep, for now is our salvation nearer than when we believed.
  66. The night is far spent, the day is at hand; let us therefore cast off the works of darkness, and let us put on the armor of light. Let us walk honestly, as in the day, not in rioting and drunkenness, not in bedding and wantonness, not in strife and envying. But put on the Lord Jesus Christ, and make not provision for the flesh to gratify the lusts thereof.
  67. Him that is weak in the faith receive, but not to doubtful disputations. For one believes that he may eat all things; another, who is weak, eats herbs. Let not him that eats despise him that eats not, and let not him who eats not judge him that eats, for God has received him. Who are you that judges another man’s servant? To his own master he stands or falls. Yea, he shall be held up, for God is able to make him stand.
  68. One man esteems one day above another; another esteems every day alike. Let every man be fully persuaded in his own mind. He that regards the day, regards it unto the Lord; and he that regards not the day, to the Lord he does not regard it. He that eats, eats to the Lord, for he gives God thanks; and he that eats not, to the Lord he eats not and gives God thanks.
  69. For none of us lives to himself, and no man dies to himself; for whether we live, we live unto the Lord, and whether we die, we die unto the Lord — whether we live therefore or die, we are the Lord’s. For to this end Christ both died, and rose, and revived, that he might be Lord both of the dead and living.
  70. But why do you judge your brother? Or why do you set at naught your brother? For we shall all stand before the judgment seat of Christ. For I live, says the Lord, and every knee shall bow to me, and every tongue shall swear to God, as it is written. So then every one of us shall give account of himself to God.
  71. Let us not therefore judge one another anymore, but judge this rather: that no man put a stumbling block or an occasion to fall in his brother’s way. I know, and am persuaded by the Lord Jesus, that there is nothing unclean of itself; but to him that esteems anything to be unclean, to him it is unclean. But if your brother is grieved with your food, you walk not charitably if you eat; therefore, destroy not him with your food for whom Christ died. Let not then your good be evil spoken of, for the kingdom of God is not food and drink, but righteousness, and peace, and joy in the holy ghost. For he that in these things serves Christ is acceptable to God and approved of men.
  72. Let us therefore follow after the things which aid peace and things with which one may edify another. For food, destroy not the work of God. All things indeed are pure, but it is evil for that man who eats with offense. It is good neither to eat flesh, nor to drink wine, nor anything whereby your brother stumbles, or is offended, or is made weak. Do you have faith? Have it to yourself before God. Happy is he that condemns not himself in that thing which he approves. And he that doubts is condemned if he eat, because it is not of faith; for whatever is not of faith is sin.
  73. We then that are strong ought to bear the infirmities of the weak and not to please ourselves; let every one of us please his neighbor for his good to edification. For even Christ pleased not himself, but as it is written: The reproaches of them that reproached you fell on me. For whatever things were written previously were written for our learning, that we, through patience and comfort of the scriptures, might have hope. Now the God of patience and consolation grant you to be like-minded one toward another as was Christ Jesus, that you may with one mind and one mouth glorify God, even the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ. Wherefore, receive one another as Christ also received us to the glory of God.
  74. Now I say that Jesus Christ was a minister of the circumcision for the truth of God, to confirm the promises made unto the fathers, and that the gentiles might glorify God for his mercy, as it is written: For this cause I will confess to you among the gentiles, and sing unto your name. And again he says, Rejoice, you gentiles, with his people. And again, Praise the Lord, all you gentiles, and laud him, all you people. And again, Isaiah says, There shall be a root of Jesse, and he that shall rise to reign over the gentiles, in him shall the gentiles trust. Now the God of hope fill you with all joy and peace in believing, that you may abound in hope through the power of the holy ghost.
  75. And I myself also am persuaded of you, my brethren, that you also are full of goodness, filled with all knowledge, able also to admonish one another. Nevertheless, brethren, I have written the more boldly unto you in some sort as putting you in mind, because of the grace that is given to me of God, that I should be the minister of Jesus Christ to the gentiles, ministering the gospel of God, that the offering up of the gentiles might be acceptable, being sanctified by the holy ghost.
  76. I have therefore whereof I may glory through Jesus Christ, in those things which pertain to God. For I will not dare to speak of any of those things which Christ has not wrought by me to make the gentiles obedient by word and deed, through mighty signs and wonders by the power of the spirit of God, so that from Jerusalem and round about unto Illyricum, I have fully preached the gospel of Christ. Yea, so have I strived to preach the gospel — not where Christ was named, lest I should build upon another man’s foundation, but as it is written: To whom he was not spoken of, they shall see, and they that have not heard shall understand — for which cause also I have been much hindered from coming to you.
  77. But now, having no more place in these parts, and having a great desire these many years to come unto you, whenever I take my journey into Spain, I will come to you; for I trust to see you in my journey, and to be brought on my way there by you, if first I am somewhat filled through your prayers. But now I go unto Jerusalem to minister unto the saints, for it has pleased them of Macedonia and Achaia to make a certain contribution for the poor saints who are at Jerusalem. It has pleased them, and their debtors they are; for if the gentiles have been made partakers of their spiritual things, their duty is also to minister unto them in carnal things. When therefore I have performed this, and have sealed to them this fruit, I will come by you into Spain. And I am sure that, when I come unto you, I shall come in the fullness of the blessing of the gospel of Christ.
  78. Now I implore you, brethren, for the Lord Jesus Christ’s sake and for the love of the spirit, that you strive together with me in your prayers to God for me, that I may be delivered from them that do not believe in Judea, and that my service which I have for Jerusalem may be accepted of the saints, that I may come unto you with joy by the will of God, and may with you be refreshed. Now the God of peace be with you all. Amen.
  79. I commend unto you Phoebe our sister, who is a servant of the church which is at Cenchrea, that you receive her in the Lord as becomes saints, and that you assist her in whatever business she has need of you; for she has been a succorer of many, and of myself also. Greet Priscilla and Aquila, my helpers in Christ Jesus, who have for my life laid down their own necks, unto whom not only I give thanks, but also all the churches of the gentiles; likewise, greet the church that is in their house. Salute my well-beloved Epaenetus, who is the firstfruits of Achaia unto Christ. Greet Mary, who expended much labor on us. Salute Andronicus and Junia, my kinsmen and my fellow prisoners, who are of note among the apostles, who also were in Christ before me. Greet Ampliatus, my beloved in the Lord. Salute Urbanus, our helper in Christ, and Stachys, my beloved. Salute Apelles, approved in Christ. Salute those who are of Aristobulus’ church. Salute Herodion, my kinsman. Greet those that are of the church of Narcissus, who are in the Lord. Salute Tryphaena and Tryphosa, who labor in the Lord. Salute the beloved Persis, who labored much in the Lord. Salute Rufus, chosen in the Lord, and his mother and mine. Salute Asyncritus, Phlegon, Hermas, Patrobas, Hermes, and the brethren who are with them. Salute Philologus and Julia, Nereus and his sister, and Olympas, and all the saints who are with them. Salute one another with a holy salutation. The churches of Christ salute you.
  80. Now I implore you, brethren, mark those who cause divisions and offenses contrary to the doctrine which you have learned, and avoid them; for they that are such serve not our Lord Jesus Christ, but their own belly, and by good words and fair speeches deceive the hearts of the simple. For your obedience has come abroad unto all men. I am glad therefore on your behalf, but yet I would have you wise unto that which is good, and simple concerning evil. And the God of peace shall bruise Satan under your feet shortly. The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you. Amen.
  81. Timothy (my fellow worker), and Lucius, and Jason, and Sosipater (my kinsmen) salute you. I, Tertius, who wrote this epistle, salute you in the Lord. Gaius (my host — and of the whole church) salutes you. Erastus (the chamberlain of the city) salutes you, and Quartus, a brother. The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you all. Amen.
  82. Now to him that is of power to establish you, according to the gospel and the preaching of Jesus Christ, according to the revelation of the mystery which was kept secret since the world began but now is made manifest, and by the scriptures of the prophets, according to the commandment of the everlasting God, made known to all nations for the obedience of faith — to God only, wise, be glory through Jesus Christ for ever. Amen.
  83. Written to the Romans from Corinth, and sent by Phoebe, servant of the church at Cenchrea.